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基于AT89C51单片机的电动小汽车

编号:68-2053 | doc 格式 | 2.25M | 47 页
  1. 文档介绍
  2. 上传者:superjunior

目  录

摘要………………………………………………………………..3
第一章  MCS-51单片机的结构…………………………………………….6
1.1 MCS-51单片机内部结构……………………………………….6
1.2 MCS-51单片机主要应用特性…………………………………10
第二章  基于8051芯片控制的自动往返小车设计……………11
2.1关于小车的设计任务要求…………………………………….11
2.2对小车的设计期望…………………………………………….11
2.3小车设计的具体实施方案…………………………………….12
2.3.1小车硬件设计方案………………………………………….12
2.3.2小车软件设计方案………………………………………….18
2.4小车功能实现的具体内容…………………………………….19
2.4.1实现小车功能的硬件内容………………………………….19
2.4.2实现小车功能的软件内容………………………………...22
第三章  对于所设计的小车的总结…………………………….29
3.1设计的小车最终实现的功能………………………………….29
3.2本设计方案与其他设计方案比较所得优缺点………………..30
3.3本次设计经验的总结………………………………………….30
参考文献………………………………………………………….31
附录………………………………………………………….…..32
外文资料………………………………………………………...34
中文译文………………………………………………………….41

 

摘  要

本设计以AT89C51单片机为核心,以超微型红外线发射接收一体化管为数据采集器件,用三极管构成的电子开关电路驱动电机,组成了一个比较完整的自动往返电动小汽车的控制系统。系统通过设计一个巧妙的精密控制脉冲占空比算法,实现了对电动小汽车自动往返的精密控制。系统的设计充分体现了价廉物美、简单实用的设计原则。
在系统结构上,我们所设计实现的自动往返电动小汽车的控制系统由四个模块组成:单片机微型控制系统模块、数据采集模块、电机驱动模块、信息显示模块。其中,数据采集模块负责采集路面信息;单片机微型控制系统模块负责对采集的信息进行处理,并通过程序完成复杂的控制;电机驱动模块主要根据单片机传入的信号控制小车的运动;信息显示模块则显示相应的信息(如行驶距离显示、倒计时显示等)
本设计的技术特色主要体现在以下几个方面:
    (1) 在设计数据采集模块时,考虑到设计成本,我们没有采用昂贵的专用传感器,而是使用廉价的超大型红外线接收发射一体化管,通过外围电路来保证信息采集的可靠性。
(2) 在设计电机驱动模块时,没有使用专用的大功率电子集成开关,而是用三极管组成简单的开关电路,实现了电机的驱动控制。
(3) 用软件实现对小车运动的精密控制是本设计的一大特色。其原理是:用位运算的方法,逐位调整脉冲信号的的占空比,实现了对电机旋转速度的精密控制。为了进一步提高控制精度,我们通过检测车轮旋转的圈数来判断小车的行进速度,继而控制电机的旋转速度,使小车在我们指定的速度下稳定行进。这样,整个电机控制系统构成了一个速度负反馈环,从而完全实现了小车的精密速控。而且,通过检测单位时间车轮旋转的圈数,可以计算出小车的速度。这样,就为发挥部分的实现提供了技术条件和数据信息。
实测数据表明,本设计不仅完成了基本要求部分的各项任务,而且还实现了发挥部分的往返时间和行驶距离显示,以及倒计时显示等功能。系统采用的设计方案正确,电路设计和软件模块设计合理,技术路线基本可行。
关键词:AT89C51芯片  自动往返  电动  光电检测器

 

ABSTRACT

Design core of regarding AT89C51 one-chip computer as originally, it is gather the device with ultra miniature infrared ray for datum to in charge of integratively to receive to launch, urge electrical machinery with electronic switch circuit that triode form , make up one intact automatic journey to and fro little control system of automobile electronic. Through design one ingenious precision control pulse account for empty than the algorithm system, have realized that controls the precision that the electronic small automobile is automatic and round. The systematic design has fully reflected the good and cheap , simple and practical design principle.
Whether at system structure, we automatic journey to and fro little control system of automobile electronic realized to design made up of four pieces of module. One-chip computer miniature control system module , data gather module , electrical machinery urge module , message show the module. Among them , gather the module and is responsible for gathering road surface information in data; One-chip computer miniature control system module it is punish to go on to message that is gathered to responsible for, and finish complicated control through the procedure ; Electrical machinery urge module main foundation signal that one-chip computer introduce to control sports of the car; Information shows the module shows corresponding information ( Show etc. if going in the distance and shows , counts )
The technological characteristic originally designed reflects in several following respects mainly:
(1)While gathering the module in design data, considering the design cost, we have not adopted the expensive special-purpose sensor , but use the low-priced ultra large-scale infrared ray to receive and launch managing integratively, guarantee the dependability that information is gathered through the peripheral circuit.
(2)While designing the electrical machinery and driving the module , have not used the special-purpose integrated switch of high-power electron , make up the simple switch circuit with the triode , realize the drive control of the electrical machinery.
(3)It is a great characteristic originally designed to control with the precision that the software realizes moving to the car. Its principle is: By way of location operation,it is by turn take empty ones that adjust by pulse signal than,it is rotate electrical machinery there aren't precision of speed not to realize. In order to improve the precision of controlling further, we judge the speed of advancing of the car through measuring the whirling circle of wheel to count , then control the speed of rotation of the electrical machinery , make the car advance steadily under the speed that we appoint . In this way, the control system of the whole electrical machinery forms a tempo negative feedback ring , thus totally realized the precision of the car is accused of rapidly. And, count through measuring the whirling circle of time wheel of the unit, can calculate out the speed of the car . In this way, offer the technological condition and data information for giving play to some realization.
Surveying the data indicates, is it finish every task , basic demand of part to design originally, is it give play to some two-way time and go distance show to realize, and such functions as count-down shows. The design plan that the system adopts is correct, circuit design and software module are reasonable in design, the technological route is feasible basically
Key words: the clip of AT89C51  automatically back and forth car  photoconductor measuring tube

 

 

  
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